This report focuses on the Kosovo and Serbian curriculum primary and secondary education systems available in Kosovo and deals with three key issues: the protection of the identity and rights of non-majority communities in education; the way in which the separate Kosovo and Serbian curriculum schools fail to promote inter-ethnic dialogue, respect and understanding of others and tolerance; and the integration opportunities afforded to non-majority students through the additional learning of official languages. This report is based on extensive field research and interviews with respondents from all communities conducted by the OSCE Mission in Kosovo (hereinafter: the OSCE) in January and February 2009. The report finds that curricula for community-specific “national” subjects for the most vulnerable Roma, Ashkali, Egyptian, Gorani, Kosovo Croat and Kosovo Montenegrin communities have not been developed yet. Insufficient availability of primary and lack of secondary education textbooks in the Turkish and Bosnian languages negatively affects the quality of education and prevents adequate learning of national subjects. Conflict over authority, the physical separation of the educational systems, the fact that within both systems learning of the other official language is not provided, no sustained efforts to promote interchanges between Kosovo Albanian and Kosovo Serb teachers and students, and the content of history and other textbooks, all contribute to further separation and make the operation of multi-ethnic schools integrating children of all systems and communities a challenge. Insufficient and inadequate Albanian language education for non-Albanian communities results in poor learning of the language, lower opportunities for educational and employment integration, and puts non-Albanian students at a competitive disadvantage. Socialization opportunities with Kosovo Albanian peers contribute at times to successful learning of this language.