Recent poverty analysis in Serbia and Montenegro indicates that deep poverty and multiple deprivations appear to have an ethnic dimension and are highly concentrated among the Roma population.

Using household survey data from 2003 which allow comparative quantitative analysis of poverty for Roma, including those residing in settlements, and the general population, this paper is the first attempt at studying in depth the extent and determinants of poverty and social exclusion of Roma in Serbia and Montenegro.

Reviewing both income and non-income dimensions of poverty in both Republics, the paper finds that Roma poverty stands out significantly from other vulnerable groups such as internally displaced persons and refugees and confirms evidence from other countries in Central and South-East Europe on the multifaceted nature of Roma poverty.

The paper also reveals the intergenerational dimension of Roma social exclusion: Substantial education access barriers and the resulting poor educational outcomes of Roma children today predict their continued social exclusion and poverty in the future.

Building on an impact analysis of the social protection system on Roma poverty in Serbia, the paper proposes policy measures aimed at tackling poverty and social exclusion of Roma in the context of the implementation of Serbia’s and Montenegro’s Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015 Action Plans.

October 2005

The full text of the report is available at: (in English) (in Serbian)